Masci P, Ruksenas R, Huang H, Curzon P, Harrison M.  2012.  Formal verification and the prevention of systematic user error. FormalH, Workshop on Formal Methods in Human-Machine Interaction sponsored by the IFIP Working Group 13.5 on Human Error, Safety, and System Development.
Bernardeschi C, Cassano L, Domenici A, Masci P.  2011.  A Tool for Signal Probability Analysis of FPGA-Based Systems. COMPTOOLS2011, the 2nd Intl. Conf. on Computational Logics, Algebras, Programming, Tools, and Benchmarking.
Blandford A, Cauchi A, Curzon P, Eslambolchilar P, Furniss D, Gimblett A, Huang H, Lee P, Li Y, Masci P et al..  2011.  Comparing Actual Practice and User Manuals: A Case Study Based on Programmable Infusion Pumps. Eics4Med, the 1st International Workshop on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems for Medicine and Health Care. Abstract

We report on a case study investigating current practice in the use of a programmable infusion pump. We start by formalising an existing description of the procedure followed by nurses for setting up a commercial infusion pump obtained via observation and interview. We then compare and contrast this procedure with a formal description of the sequence of actions reported in the pump's user manual. Mismatches were validated by a training manager. The aim of this comparison is to point out how minor mismatches between the two descriptions can be used to reveal major safety issues. Our contributions are: first, we analyse a real-world system and show the importance of having a clear and consistent specification of the procedures; second, we show how a graph-based notation can be conveniently used for building non-ambiguous and intuitive specifications. We argue that this can provide support to an investigator when building a description of actual practice in that it can help focus attention on areas to observe more closely and questions to ask to understand why procedures, as followed, are the way they are.

Cauchi A, Curzon P, Eslambolchilar P, Gimblett A, Huang H, Lee P, Li Y, Masci P, Oladimeji P, Ruksenas R et al..  2011.  Towards Dependable Number Entry for Medical Devices. Eics4Med, the 1st International Workshop on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems for Medicine and Health Care. Abstract

Number entry is an ubiquitous task in medical devices, but is implemented in many different ways, from decimal keypads to seemingly simple up/down buttons. Operator manuals often do not give clear and complete explanations, and all approaches have subtle variations, with details varying from device to device. This paper explores the design issues, critiques designs, and shows that methods have advantages and disadvantages, particularly in terms of undetected error rates.

Masci P, Curzon P, Blandford A, Furniss D.  2011.  On formalising interactive number entry on infusion pumps. ECEASST. 45 Abstract

We define the predictability of a user interface as the property that an idealised user can predict with sufficient certainty the effect of any action in a given state in a system, where state information is inferred from the perceptible output of the system. In our definition, the user is not required to have full knowledge of a history of actions from an initial state to the current state. Typically such definitions rely on cognitive and knowledge assumptions; in this paper we explore the notion in the situation where the user is an idealised expert and understands perfectly how the device works. In this situation predictability concerns whether the user can tell what state the device is in and accurately predict the consequences of an action from that state simply by looking at the device; normal human users can certainly do no better. We give a formal definition of predictability in higher order logic and explore how real systems can be verified against the property. We specify two real number entry interfaces in the healthcare domain (drug infusion pumps) as case studies of predictable and unpredictable user interfaces. We analyse the specifications with respect to our formal definition of predictability and thus show how to make unpredictable systems predictable.

Masci P, Martinucci M, Giandomenico FD.  2011.  Towards Automated Dependability Analysis of Dynamically Connected Systems. Proceedings of the 2011 Tenth International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems. :139–146. Abstract

Dynamic environments may include autonomous and decentralised components that pose many challenges from the point of view of interoperability, thus triggering research studies in several directions. One recent research direction explores the automatic composition of heterogeneous systems through connectors synthesised at run-time. Besides functional properties, such connectors generally need to satisfy also non-functional (dependability-related) properties. This paper investigates the definition of an automated procedure to support the synthesis of dependable connectors.

Bertolino A, Calabro A, Giandomenico FD, Martinucci M, Masci P.  2011.  Automated Refinement of Dependability Analysis through Monitoring in Dynamically Connected Systems. Proceedings of the 2011 Tenth International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems. :315–318. Abstract

Model-based analysis is a well-established method to assess the dependability of a system before deployment. It is well known that, in highly dynamic contexts, the accuracy of the analysis results can be limited because unpredictable phenomena may affect the system during its operation. In such contexts, the analysis typically needs to be refined with data obtained from real system executions. In this paper we tackle the issue of refining model-based dependability analysis in automated systems through monitoring. Specifically, we report on our preliminary results on the development of a system that exploits the synergic use of an automated approach for model-based dependability analysis and a flexible monitoring architecture.

Masci P, Curzon P, Huang H, Ruksenas R, Blandford A, Furniss D, Rajkomar A.  2011.  Towards a formal framework for reasoning about the resilience of dynamic interactive systems. Proceedings of the 13th European Workshop on Dependable Computing. :109–110. Abstract

It is well known that systems built with resilient components are not necessarily resilient systems. Nevertheless, when studying the resilience of work systems characterised by continuous inter-operations among humans and devices, analysts generally concentrate only on localised interactions among humans and devices. Consequently they fail to capture the distributed nature of the mechanisms that guide interactions in dynamic interactive systems. In this paper, as a result of work on the resilience of medical systems with respect to human error, we propose a framework for reasoning about the resilience of complex dynamic interactive systems. To do this we exploit concepts from three different areas: the automated synthesis of resilient systems, formal methods for user-centred design, and distributed cognition.

Masci P, Curzon P.  2011.  Checking User-Centred Design Principles in Distributed Cognition Models: A Case Study in the Healthcare Domain. Information Quality in e-Health. 7058:95-108. Abstract

We propose a constructive procedure for building a distribut-ed cognition model of a system out of contextual / ethnographic data. We then show how such a model can be conveniently used for studying, in a repeatable and justifiable way, if a system correctly implements selected user-centred design principles. Our approach thus complements user studies in that it enables reasoning about the situated use of a teamwork system even before direct user involvement. We have applied our procedure to a healthcare case study. In particular, we have re-analysed a well-known adverse incident that led to a fatality and for which a comprehensive investigation report is in the public domain. By reasoning about the distributed cognition model, we identified several issues that were not addressed in the incident report nor in other subsequent analyses.

Masci P, Nostro N, Giandomenico F.  2011.  On Enabling Dependability Assurance in Heterogeneous Networks through Automated Model-Based Analysis. Software Engineering for Resilient Systems. 6968:78-92. Abstract

We present the specification of a basic library of dependability mechanisms that can be used within automated approaches for synthesising dependable connectors in heterogeneous networks. The library builds on classical dependability patterns, such as majority voting and retry, and uses the concept of overlay networks for triggering the synthesis of specific dependability mechanisms in the connector from high-level specifications. We translated such dependability mechanisms into SAN models with the aim to evaluate, through model-based analysis, which dependability mechanisms should be embedded in the synthesised connector for ensuring a given dependability level between networked systems willing to be connected. A case study is also presented to show the application of selected library mechanisms. This work is carried out in the context of connect, a European FET project which is investigating the possibility of enabling long-lasting inter-operation among networked systems by synthesising mediating connectors at run-time.

Bernardeschi C, Cassano L, Domenici A, Masci P.  2010.  Debugging PVS Specifications of Control Logics via Event-driven Simulation. Proc. 1st Intl. Conf. on Computational Logics, Algebras, Programming, Tools, and Benchmarking (ComputationTools2010). Abstract

In this paper, we present a framework aimed at simulating control logics specified in the higher-order logic of the Prototype Verification System. The framework offers a library of predefined modules, a method for the composition of more complex modules, and an event-driven simulation engine. A developer simulates the specified system by providing its input waveforms as functions from time to logic levels. Once the simulation experiments give sufficient confidence in the correctness of the specification, the model can serve as a basis for the formal verification of desired properties of interest. A simple case study from a nuclear power plant application is shown. This paper is a contribution to research aimed at improving the development process of safety-critical systems by integrating simulation and formal specification methods.

Giandomenico FD, Kwiatkowska M, Martinucci M, Masci P, Qu H.  2010.  Dependability analysis and verification for CONNECTed systems. Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Leveraging applications of formal methods, verification, and validation - Volume Part II. :263–277. Abstract

The Connect project aims to enable the seamless composition of heterogeneous networked systems. In this context, Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques are sought to ensure that the Connected system satisfies dependability requirements. Stochastic model checking and state-based stochastic methods are two appealing V&V approaches to accomplish this task. In this paper, we report on the application of the two approaches in a typical Connect scenario. Specifically, we make clear (i) how the two approaches can be employed to enhance the confidence in the correctness of the analysis, and (ii) how the complementarity of these approaches can be fruitfully exploited to extend the analysis.

Masci P, Chiaradonna S, Giandomenico FD.  2010.  Dependability Analysis of Diffusion Protocols in Wireless Networks with Heterogeneous Node Capabilities. Proceedings of the 2010 European Dependable Computing Conference. :145–154. Abstract

Wireless networks are starting to be populated by interconnected devices that reveal remarkable hardware and software differences. This fact raises a number of questions on the applicability of available results on dependability-related aspects of communication protocols, since they were obtained for wireless networks with homogeneous nodes. In this work, we study the impact of heterogeneous communication and computation capabilities of nodes on dependability aspects of diffusion protocols for wireless networks. We build a detailed stochastic model of the logic layers of the communication stack with the SAN formalism. The model takes into account relevant real-world aspects of wireless communication, such as transitional regions and capture effect, and heterogeneous node capabilities. Dependability-related metrics are evaluated with analytical solutions techniques for small networks, while simulation is employed in the case of large networks.

Bertolino A, Di Giandomenico F, Marco DA, Issarny V, Martinelli F, Masci P, Matteucci I, Saadi R, Sabetta A.  2010.  Dependability in dynamic, evolving and heterogeneous systems: the Connect approach. Proc. 2nd International Workshop on Software Engineering for Resilient Systems (SERENE2010). Abstract

The EU Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) Project CONNECT aims at dropping the heterogeneity barriers that prevent the eternality of networking systems through a revolutionary approach: to synthesise on-the-fly the CONNECTors via which networked systems communicate. The CONNECT approach, however, comes at risk from the standpoint of dependability, stressing the need for methods and tools that ensure resilience to faults, errors and malicious attacks of the dynamically CONNECTed system. We are investigating a comprehensive approach, which combines dependability analysis, security enforcement and trust assessment, and is centred around a lightweight adaptive monitoring framework. In this project paper, we overview the research that we are undertaking towards this objective and propose a unifying workflow process that encompasses all the CONNECT dependability/security/trust concepts and models.

Bertolino A, Di Giandomenico F, Marco DA, Masci P, Sabetta A.  2010.  Metrics for QoS analysis in dynamic, evolving and heterogeneous connected systems. Proc 8th International Workshop on Dynamic Analysis (WODA2010). :–. Abstract

Dynamic, evolving systems pose new challenges from the point of view of Quality of Service (QoS) analysis, calling for techniques able to combine traditional offline methods with new ones applied at run-time. Tracking the evolution and updating the assessment consistently with such system evolution require not only advanced analysis methods, but also appropriate metrics well representative of QoS properties in the addressed context. The ongoing European project Connect addresses systems evolution, and aims at bridging technological gaps arising from heterogeneity of networked systems, by synthesising on-the-fly interoperability connectors. Moving from such ambitious goal, in this paper we present a metrics framework, whereby classical dependability/QoS metrics can be refined and combined to characterise Connect applications and to support their monitoring and analysis.