Coalgebra is an abstract framework for the uniform study of different kinds of dynamical systems. An endofunctor $F$ determines both the type of systems ($F$-coalgebras) and a notion of behavioral equivalence ($\sim_F$) amongst them. Many types of transition systems and their equivalences can be captured by a functor $F$. For example, for deterministic automata the derived equivalence is language equivalence, while for non-deterministic automata it is ordinary bisimilarity. The powerset construction is a standard method for converting a nondeterministic automaton into an equivalent deterministic one as far as language is concerned. In this paper, we lift the powerset construction on automata to the more general framework of coalgebras with structured state spaces. Examples of applications include partial Mealy machines, (structured) Moore automata, and Rabin probabilistic automata.

In this paper we present a compositional semantics for the channel-based coordination language Reo which enables the analysis of quality of service (QoS) properties of service compositions. For this purpose, we annotate Reo channels with stochastic delay rates and explicitly model data-arrival rates at the boundary of a connector, to capture its interaction with the services that comprise its environment. We propose Stochastic Reo automata as an extension of Reo automata, in order to compositionally derive a QoS-aware semantics for Reo. We further present a translation of Stochastic Reo automata to Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). This translation enables us to use third- party CTMC verification tools to do an end-to-end performance analysis of service compositions.

In this paper, we present a systematic way of deriving (1) languages of (generalized) regular expressions, and (2) sound and complete axiomatizations thereof, for a wide variety of systems. This generalizes both the results of Kleene (on regular languages and deterministic finite automata) and Milner (on regular behaviours and finite labelled transition systems), and includes many other systems such as Mealy and Moore machines.

Recent approaches to component-based software engineering employ coordinat- ing connectors to compose components into software systems. For maximum flexibility and reuse, such connectors can themselves be composed, resulting in an expressive calculus of connectors whose semantics encompasses complex combinations of synchronisation, mutual exclusion, non-deterministic choice and state-dependent behaviour. A more expressive notion of connector includes also context-dependent behaviour, namely, whenever the choices a connector can take change non-monotonically as the context, given by the pending activity on its ports, changes. Context dependency can express notions of priority and inhibition. Capturing context-dependent behaviour in formal models is non-trivial, as it is unclear how to propagate context information through composition. In this paper we present an intuitive automata-based formal model of context- dependent connectors, and argue that it is superior to previous attempts at such a model for the coordination language Reo.

We study the set TA of infinite binary trees with nodes labelled in a semiring A from a coalgebraic perspective. We present coinductive definition and proof principles based on the fact that TA carries a final coalgebra structure. By viewing trees as formal power series, we develop a calculus where definitions are presented as behavioural differential equations. We present a general format for these equations that guarantees the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Although technically not very difficult, the resulting framework has surprisingly nice applications, which is illustrated by various concrete examples.

For polynomial set functors G, we introduce a language of expressions for describing elements of final G-coalgebra. We show that every state of a finite G-coalgebra corresponds to an expression in the language, in the sense that they both have the same semantics. Conversely, we give a compositional synthesis algorithm which transforms every expression into a finite G-coalgebra. The language of expressions is equipped with an equational system that is sound, complete and expressive with respect to G-bisimulation.

We present a novel coalgebraic logic for deterministic Mealy machines that is sound, complete and expressive w.r.t. bisimulation. Every finite Mealy machine corresponds to a finite formula in the language. For the converse, we give a compositional synthesis algorithm which transforms every formula into a finite Mealy machine whose behaviour is exactly the set of causal functions satisfying the formula.

We study the set TA of infinite binary trees with nodes labelled in a semiring A from a coalgebraic perspective. We present coinductive definition and proof principles based on the fact that TA carries a final coalgebra structure. By viewing trees as formal power series, we develop a calculus where definitions are presented as behavioural differential equations. We present a general format for these equations that guarantees the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Although technically not very difficult, the resulting framework has surprisingly nice applications, which is illustrated by various concrete examples.

Computer systems have widely spread since their appearance, and they now play a crucial role in many daily activities, with their deployment ranging from small home appliances to safety critical components, such as airplane or automobile control systems. Accidents caused by either hardware or software failure can have disastrous consequences, leading to the loss of human lives or causing enormous financial drawbacks. One of the greatest challenges of computer science is to cope with the fast evolution of computer systems and to develop formal techniques which facilitate the construction of dependable software and hardware systems. Since the early days of computer science, many scientists have searched for suitable models of computation and for specification languages that are appropriate for reasoning about such models. When devising a model for a particular system, there is a need to encode different features which capture the inherent behavior of the system. For instance, some systems have deterministic behavior (a calculator or an elevator), whereas others have inherently non-deterministic or probabilistic behavior (think of a casino slot machine). The rapidly increasing complexity of systems demands for compositional and unifying models of computation, as well as general methods and guidelines to derive specification languages.