Campos JC, Harrison M.  2003.  From HCI to Software Engineering and back. Bridging the Gaps Between Software Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction, ICSE '2003 workshop. :49-56. Abstractcamposh03.pdf

Methods to assess and ensure system usability are becoming increasingly important as market edge becomes less dependent on function and more dependent on ease of use, and as recognition increases that a user’s failure to understand how an automated system works may jeapordise its safety. While ultimately only deployment of a system will prove its usability, a number of approaches to early analysis have been proposed that provide some ability to predict the usability and human-error proneness of the fielded system. The majority of these approaches are designed to be used by human factors specialists, require specific expertise that does not fall within the domain of software engineering and fall outside standard software development life cycles. However, amongst this number, some rigorous mathematical methods have been proposed as solutions to the more general problem of ensuring quality of system designs citations both in terms of the broader software engineering agenda and in terms of their effectiveness for usability analysis, the opportunities that they offer and discusses what might be done to make them more acceptable and effective. The paper positions those methods that have been effective against less formal usability analysis methods.

Campos JC.  2003.  Using task knowledge to guide interactor specifications analysis. Interactive Systems: Design, Specification and Verification - DSV-IS. 2844:171-186. Abstract29.pdf

This paper looks at how to extend the type of analysis that can be done using interactor based models of interactive systems, the i2smv tool, and SMV. Originally, the type of analysis performed with i2smv/SMV was concerned with the exhaustive exploration of all possible behaviours of a device, with little direct consideration of the tasks it should support. The paper investigates how task models can be introduced into the approach in order to extend the range of properties that can be analysed.

Campos JC.  2003.  Uma abordagem formal À Engenharia da Usabilidade. CLIHC - Conference Proceedings. :17-28. Abstractclihc03.pdf

The quality of an interactive system can be measured in terms of its usability. Empirical approaches to usability evaluation attempt to assess the system under real usage conditions. This type of approach can be very expensive. Analytical approaches have been proposed as a means of reasoning about usability issues from early in development. These approaches use models to focus the analysis in specific usability issues. In this context, the application of (mathematically) formal notations and tools has been proposed. This paper presents a formal approach to the analysis of interactive systems. The analysis can be carried out taking into account all possible behaviours of the device, or it can be guided by the tasks the device is supposed to support.

Campos JC, Harrison M.  2001.  Model Checking Interactor Specifications. ASE - Automated Software Engineering. 8(3):275-310. Abstractcamposh01.pdf

Recent accounts of accidents draw attention to "automation surprises'' that arise in safety critical systems. An automation surprise can occur when a system behaves differently from the expectations of the operator. Interface mode changes are one class of such surprises that have significant impact on the safety of a dynamic interactive system. They may take place {\em implicitly} as a result of other system action. Formal specifications of interactive systems provide an opportunity to analyse problems that arise in such systems. In this paper we consider the role that an {\em interactor} based specification has as a partial model of an interactive system so that mode consequences can be checked early in the design process. We show how interactor specifications can be translated into the SMV model checker input language and how we can use such specifications in conjunction with the model checker to analyse potential for mode confusion in a realistic case. Our final aim is to develop a general purpose methodology for the automated analysis of interactive systems. This verification process can be useful in raising questions that have to be addressed in a broader context of analysis.

Campos JC, Harrison M.  1999.  Using automated reasoning in the design of an audio-visual communication system. Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems - DSV-IS. :167-188. Abstractcamposh99.pdf

Formal reasoning about how usersn and systems interact poses a difficult challenge. Interactive systems design provides a context in which the subjective area of human understanding meets the objectivity of computer systems logic. We present results of a case study in the use of automated reasoning to aid the formal analysis of interactive systems. We show how we can use human-factors issues to generate properties of interest, and how we can use model checking and theorem proving to analyse our specifications against those properties.This is part of ongoing work in the development of a tool to allow the automatic translation of interactor based specifications into SMV, and in the analysis of the role which different verification techniques might have during the development of interactive systems.

Campos JC.  1998.  Integrating Automated Verification into Interactive Systems Development. 13th IEEE International Conference: Automated Software Engineering - Doctoral Symposium Proceedings. :13-15. Abstractase98.pdf

Our fieldof researchis the applicationof automatedrea-soning techniques during interactor based interactive sys-tems development. The aim being to ensure that the de-veloped systems embody appropriate properties and princi- ples. In this report we identify some of the pitfalls of current approachesand propose a new way to integrate verificationinto interactive systems development.

Campos JC, Harrison M.  1998.  The role of verification in interactive systems design. Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems - DSV-IS. :155-170. Abstractcamposh98.pdf

In this paper we argue that using verification in interactive systems development is more than just checking whether the specification of the system has all the required properties, and that changing the focus from a global specification into partial, property oriented, specifications can provide a number of advantages and make verification actas an aid to decision making. We also present a compiler that allows for the verification of interactor specifications to be done in SMV, as well as a simple case study where verification is used to inform a design decision.

Doherty G, Campos JC, Harrison M.  1998.  Representational Reasoning and Verification. Proceedings of the BCS-FACS Workshop: Formal Aspects of the Human Computer Interaction. :193-212. Abstract10.

Formal approaches to the design of interactive systems, such as the principled design approach rely on reasoning about properties of the system at a very high level of abstraction. Such specifications typically provide little scope for reasoning about presentations and the representation of information in the presentation. Theories of distributed cognition place a strong emphasis on the role of representations in the cognitive process, but it is not clear how such theories can be applied to design. In this paper we show how a formalisation can be used to encapsulate representational aspects, affording us an opportunity to integrate representational reasoning into the design process. We have shown in [3] how properties over the abstract state place requirements on the presentation if the properties are to be valid at the perceptual level, and we have presented a model for such properties. We base our approach on this model, and examine in more detail the issue of verification.

Campos JC, Harrison M.  1997.  Formally Verifying Interactive Systems: A Review. Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems '97. :109-124. Abstractcamposh97.pdf

Although some progress has been made in the development of principles to guide the designers of ninteractive systems, ultimately the only proven method of checking how usable a particular system is must be based on experiment. However, it is also the case that changes that occurat this late stage are very expensive.The need for early design checking increases as software becomes more complex and is designed to serve volume international markets and also as interactions between operators and automation in safety-critical environments becomes more complex. This paper reviews progress in the area of formal verification of interactive systems and proposes a short agenda for further work.

Campos JC, Martins F.  1996.  Context Sensitive User Interfaces. Formal Aspects of the Human Computer Interface. Abstractfahci96.pdf

This paper presents a conceptual design model for user interfaces (MASS1) and a general formalism for dialogue specification (Interaction Scripts) which are the most important components of an approach to the methodological, iterative design of Interactive Systems from formal, model-based specification of both the application and the User Interface (UI).
This approach allows the integration of both dialogue and application semantics from the beginning of the design process, by using prototypes derived from both specifications. Assuming that all the application semantics is available at early design stages, the MASS model defines a set of guidelines that will enforce the designer to create user interfaces that will present a prophylactic instead of the usual therapeutic behaviour. By a prophylactic behaviour it is meant, metaphorically, that the UI will exhibit a behaviour that prevents and avoids both syntactic and semantic user errors, in contrast with the most usual therapeutic, or error recovery, behaviour.
The dialogue specification formalism(Interaction Scripts) despite being general, in the sense that it may be applied to the specification of any kind of dialogue, is specially suited to the specification of UIs with the behaviour prescribed by the MASS design model. In addition, it is independent from concrete environment details, therefore allowing for different implementations of the same specification, that is, different looks and feels. The operational semantics of the Interaction Script notation is also presented in terms of Petri-Nets that are automatically generated from the Interaction Script specification of the dialogue controller.

Campos JC, Martins F.  1994.  O Sistema GAMA - Arquitectura e Implementação. 6º Encontro Português de Computação Gráfica. :2-15. Abstractcamposm94.pdf

Este artigo apresenta o Sistema GAMA, um Sistema de Geração de Interfaces Humano-Computador com um elevado grau de assistência semântica no âmbito de uma metodologia rigorosa para o desenvolvimento de Sistemas Interactivos. O sistema é composto por um módulo de geração semi-automática da especificação da interface (MGI) e outro de animação da interface com base na especificação anterior (MIU). A implementação do MIU é feita com base no Modelo de Seeheim, utilizando três processos, um para cada um dos componentes do modelo. Cada um dos componentes é apresentado bem como os protocolos de comunicação entre eles. É também mostrado como o sistema permite, facilmente, obter tanto uma interface VT100 como uma X11.

Campos JC, Martins F.  1993.  GAMA-X - Uma Arquitectura Software para o Desenvolvimento Semi-Automático de Interfaces Utilizador-Sistema. 5º Encontro Português de Computação Gráfica. :197-209. Abstractcamposm93.pdf

Apresenta-se neste artigo uma arquitectura software destinada a fornecer o suporte tecnológico ao desenvolvimento de Interfaces Utilizador no enquadramento de uma metodologia rigorosa para o desenvolvimento de Sistemas Interactivos.
Assim, partindo da especificação formal da camada aplicativa, usando modelos matemáticos, a metodologia visa a sistematização do processo de construção do sistema interactivo, segundo princípios que têm por objectivo a criação de interfaces de qualidade dado o seu grau de assistência ao utilizador, dadas as suas características preventivas de erros e finalmente dada a sua sensibilidade contectual.
O sistema apresentado, GAMA-X, oferece uma arquitectura de apoio ao desenvolvimento sistemático e semi-automático deste tipo de interfaces, incorporando ferramentas que apoiam os diferentes passos de desenvolvimento.
Apresenta-se neste artigo em maior detalhe a composição do GAMA-X, com relevo para os módulos mais ligados à IU, bem como a linguagem de especificação do controlador de diálogo.
Referem-se ainda questões relacionadas com a camada de apresentação e com a comunicação entre os diferentes módulos.

Ziegler J, Campos JC, Nigay L.  2014.  HCI engineering: charting the way towards methods and tools for advanced interactive systems. EICS '14 - Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGCHI symposium on Engineering interactive computing systems. :299-300. Abstractp299-ziegler.pdf

This workshop intends to establish the basis of a roadmap addressing engineering challenges and emerging themes in HCI. Novel forms of interaction and new application domains involve aspects that are currently not sufficiently covered by existing methods and tools. The workshop will serve as a venue to bring together researchers and practitioners interested the Engineering of Human-Computer Interaction and in contributing to the definition of a roadmap for the field. The intention is to continue work on the roadmap in follow-up workshops as well as in the context of the IFIP Working Group on User Interface Engineering.

[Anonymous].  2008.  Interação 2008 - Actas da 3a. Conferência Nacional em Interação Pessoa-Máquina. Interação 2008. :260. Abstract

A Interacção Pessoa-Máquina é uma área multidisciplinar em rápida evolução. Envolve áreas tão diversas como a concepção de hardware, engenharia de software, design, ergonomia ou psicologia cognitiva. As sinergias entre estas áreas permitem a criação de sistemas interactivos que respondem às reais necessidades dos seus utilizadores.
Na sequência do sucesso das duas primeiras edições, organiza-se agora a Interacção 2008 – 3a. Conferência Nacional em Interacção Pessoa-Máquina – numa iniciativa conjunta do Grupo Português de Computação Gráfica e da Universidade de Évora. Tal como nas edições anteriores, a Interacção 2008 visa promover um ponto de encontro da comunidade interessada na Interacção Pessoa-Máquina em Portugal. Reunindo investigadores, docentes e profissionais das diversas áreas envolvidas, potencia-se a partilha de conhecimentos e pontos de vista, permitindo a divulgação de trabalhos realizados ou em curso e a troca de experiências entre as comunidades académica e industrial.
Adoptando uma postura marcadamente multidisciplinar, a conferência desafiou os autores a abordar desde os fundamentos teóricos às práticas e aplicações emergentes, visando explorar sinergias nas seguintes dimensões:
• Aspectos Teóricos em Interacção Pessoa-Máquina
• Concepção, Desenvolvimento e Avaliação de Sistemas Interactivos
• Tecnologias de Suporte à Interacção
• Aplicações Interactivas
Em resposta a este desafio, foram recebidos 40 trabalhos de autores oriundos de Portugal, Argentina e Áustria. Destes, 19 eram artigos longos (até 10 páginas), 16 artigos curtos (até 6 páginas) e 5 propostas de posters/demonstrações.
Como resultado do processo de revisão dos trabalhos propostos, foram organizadas seis sessões técnicas em que foram apresentados 12 artigos longos e 19 artigos curtos, bem como uma sessão de posters e demonstrações em que foram apresentados 5 trabalhos. De notar que, tendo em vista abarcar uma comunidade o mais lata possível, o Comité de Programa convidou os autores de 6 trabalhos originalmente submetidos como artigos longos a re-submetê-los como artigos curtos (vindo 5 a ser aceites para publicação) e os autores de 2 trabalhos submetidos originalmente como artigos curtos a re-submetê-los como poster/demonstrações (vindo um a ser publicado neste novo formato). Para complementar o programa técnico foram ainda organizadas duas sessões proferidas por convidados internacionais de renome e uma workshop sobre Tecnologias Multimédia no Ensino.
A conferência decorreu entre os dias 15 e 17 de Outubro de 2008, nas instalações da Universidade de Évora. Procurou-se que ela fosse um retrato do trabalho que vem sendo desenvolvido nesta área em Portugal. Assim, as sessões técnicas desenvolveram-se em torno de seis temas principais, seleccionados a partir da análise dos trabalhos aceites: Aplicações Interactivas, Avaliação e Usabilidade, Concepção e Desenvolvimento, Computação Móvel e Acessibilidade. Sem se tratar de uma classificação estanque, pensamos ser esta uma organização natural e abrangente dos trabalhos apresentados.
Terminamos agradecendo aos membros do Comité Organizador e da Comissão de Programa todo o seu trabalho, aos oradores convidados, Golan Levin e António Câmara, bem como a todos os autores. Agradecemos finalmente a todos os patrocinadores por nos ajudarem a tornar este evento possível. Esperamos que esta tenha sido mais uma contribuição para fomentar a partilha e colaboração da comunidade Interacção Pessoa-Máquina em Portugal.