Book Chapters

Harrison M, Masci P, Campos JC, Curzon P.  2017.  The Specification and Analysis of Use Properties of a Nuclear Control System. The Handbook of Formal Methods in Human-Computer Interaction. Abstract

The chapter explores a layered approach to the analysis of the Nuclear Power Plant Control System described in Chapter 4. A model is specified to allow the analysis of use-centred properties based on generic templates. User interface properties include: the visibility of state attributes, the clarity of the mode structure and the ease with which an action can be recovered from. Property templates are used as heuristics to ease the construction of requirements for the control system interface.

Campos JC, Saraiva JA, Silva CE, Silva JC.  2012.  GUIsurfer: A Reverse Engineering Framework for User Interface Software. Reverse Engineering - Recent Advances and Applications. :31-54. Abstract

In the context of developing tool support to the automated analysis of interactive systems implementations, this chapter proposal aims to investigate the applicability of reverse engineering approaches to the derivation of user interfaces behavioural models. The ultimate goal is that these models might be used to reason about the quality of the system, both from an usability and an implementation perspective, as well as being used to help systems maintenance, evolution and redesign.

Harrison M, Campos JC, Loer K.  2008.  Formal analysis of interactive systems: opportunities and weaknesses. Research Methods in Human Computer Interaction. :88-111. Abstract

Although formal techniques are not widely used in the analysis of interactive systems there are reasons why an appropriate set of tools, suitably designed to be usable by system engineers, could be of value in the portfolio of techniques used to assess interactive systems. This chapter describes the role of formal techniques in modelling and analysing interactive systems, discusses unfulfilled opportunities and speculates about the removal of barriers to their use. It also presents the opportunities that a clear expression of the problem and systematic analysis techniques may afford.

Harrison M, Campos JC, Doherty G, Loer K.  2008.  Connecting rigorous system analysis to experience centred design. Maturing Usability: Quality in Software, Interaction and Value. :56-74. Abstract

The chapter explores the role that formal modelling may play in aiding the visualisation and implementation of usability with a particular emphasis on experience requirements in an ambient and mobile system. Mechanisms for requirements elicitation and evaluation are discussed, as well as the role of scenarios and their limitations in capturing experience requirements. The chapter then discusses the role of formal modelling by revisiting an analysis based on an exploration of traditional usability requirements before moving on to consider requirements more appropriate to a built environment. The role of modelling within the development process is re-examined by looking at how models may incorporate knowledge relating to user experience and how the results of the analysis of such models may be exploited by human factors and domain experts in their consideration Ambient and mobile systems are often used to bring information and services.

Campos JC, Harrison M.  2006.  Automated deduction and usability reasoning. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction. :45-54. Abstract

Reasoning about the usability of a given interactive system's design is a difficult task. However it is one task that must be performed if downstream costs with extensive redesign are to be avoided. Traditional usability testing alone cannot avoid these costs since it too often is performed late in development life cycle. In recent years approaches have been put forward that attempt to reason about the usability of a design from early in development. Mainstream approaches are based on some kind of (more or less structured) inspection of a design by usability experts. This type of approach breaks down for systems with large and complex user interfaces, and again extensive testing is required. In an attempt to deal with these issues there have been attempts to apply software engineering reasoning tools to the development of interactive systems. The article reviews this work and puts forward some ideas for the future.

Fernandes A, Pereira JR, Campos JC.  2006.  Accessibility and Visually Impaired Users. Enterprise Information Systems VI. Abstract

Internet accessibility for the visually impaired community is still an open issue. Guidelines have been issued by the W3C consortium to help web designers to improve web site accessibility. However several studies show that a significant percentage of web page creators are still ignoring the proposed guidelines. Several tools are now available, general purpose, or web specific, to help visually impaired readers. But is reading a web page enough? Regular sighted users are able to scan a web page for a particular piece of information at high speeds. Shouldn't visually impaired readers have the same chance? This paper discusses some features already implemented to improve accessibility and presents a user feedback report regarding the AudioBrowser, a talking browser. Based on the user feedback the paper also suggests some avenues for future work in order to make talking browsers and screen readers compatible.